According to the 2011 Human Development report, Vietnam ranks 128 (2011) in Human Development Index (HDI) out of 187 countries. The life expectancy at birth was 75.2 years, expected years of schooling is 5.5 years, GNI per capita was $2, 805, and Human Index Development was .593. Vietnam’s 2011 HDI of .593 is below the average of .630 for countries in the medium human development group and below the average of .671 for countries in East Asia and the Pacific.
Vietnam’s Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is .084, the head count is 17.7%, the intensity of deprivation is 47.2%, population vulnerable to poverty is 6.0%, and population below income poverty line is 13.1%. The percentage of the population living below PPP is $1.25 per day (US Dollars). MPI identifies multiple deprivations in the same households in education, health, and standard of living.
Lao PDR (People’s Democratic Republic) is a land linked country bordering Myanmar, Cambodia, China, Thailand, and Vietnam. About 6.25 million people live in its 17 provinces, with most people – 67 percent – still living in rural areas. However, urbanization is occurring at a rate of 4.9 percent each year. The country is largely mountainous, with the most fertile land found along the Mekong plains. The river flows from north to south, forming the border with Thailand for more than 60 percent of its length.
Despite still being a least developed country (LDC), Lao PDR has made significant progress in poverty alleviation over the past 2 decades with poverty rates declining from 46% in 1992 to 27.6% today. The country is on course to achieve the Millennium Development Goal target of halving poverty by 2015, however the challenge now is to ensure that all Lao people benefit in the country’s development.
Lao’s PDR Human Development Index (HDI) for 2011 is .524-in the medium human development category. Laos PDR ranks 138 out of 187 countries in the HDI, the life expectancy at birth is 67.5, expected school of schooling is 9.2 years, means years of schooling is 4.6, the Gross Net Income (GNI) per capita is $2,242.
There are 25% female seats in parliament. 22.9% female has at least secondary education while there are 36.8% male population has at least secondary education. 14.1% of the population are vulnerable to poverty, 28.1% of the population in severe poverty, and 33.9% of the population below income poverty line.
Cambodia is a developing country emerging from decades of civil conflict and economic stagnation and moving towards becoming a dynamic economy in the Association of South-East Asian Nations. Cambodia has achieved impressive economic growth since the mid-1990s and has made significant progress in reducing national poverty. It is ranked 139 out of 187 countries on the UNDP 2011 Human Development Index. The HDI score for Cambodia in 2011 was estimated at 0.523. The country with an HDI rank of 1 (Norway) is considered the most developed; the country with an HDI rank of 187 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) is considered the least developed.
According to the 2007 Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey (CSES), the poverty rate decreased from 35 percent in 2004 to 30 percent in 2007. The government’s Commune Database estimates the 2010 poverty rate to be 25.8 percent. The proportion of the population living under the food poverty line is 18 percent according to data from the CSES. Cambodia’s census conducted in 2008 recorded a population of 13,395,682 (6,516,054 males and 6,879,628 females).The annual population growth rate declined from 2.49% in 1998 to 1.54% in 2008, 80.5% of Cambodians live in rural areas, the average household size is 4.7 people, and 28.3% of Cambodians live on less than $1.25 (purchasing power parity) per day.
Cambodia’s Gross Domestic Product per capita in 2011 was $1,848. 21.3% of the population are vulnerable to poverty, 22% of the population in severe poverty, and 28.3% of the population below income poverty line. 26.4% of Cambodian households use electricity as their main source of light; 33.7% have a toilet facility within their premises; 47.0% have access to improved water sources (including piped water, tube/pipe well , protected dug well and rain water; 83.6% use firewood as their main type of fuel for cooking. The adult literacy rate for Cambodian men is 85.1%; that for women is 70.9%.
Strong improvement has been reported over the years on most key health indicators, as per the most recent Demographic Health Survey (CDHS 2010). However, malnutrition rates in Cambodia remain stubbornly high; almost 40 percent of children are chronically malnourished and micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron, vitamin A and iodine, are high among children under 5 and pregnant and lactating women. The maternal mortality ratio is 206 per 100,000 live births and life expectancy at birth is 63.1, the expected years of schooling is 9.8 and the mean years of schooling is 5.8.
While Cambodia produces a surplus of paddy rice for export, household access to sufficient and nutritious food remains a serious challenge. This is due to high poverty rates and limited social protection coverage for the poor and vulnerable households, notably those exposed to natural disasters such as flooding and droughts.